Research in the semantic field of formation and standard of living in Ethiopia has prospects. Thus, we can look at a whole layer of reasons why there is poverty or security problems in Ethiopia. If you didn't find the answer to your question in the research below, you can contact 123helpme.
Within the Ethiopian context, the WED team is seeking to analyse the production, reproduction and reduction of poverty, within inequality dynamics, and in relation to cultural constructions of subjective wellbeing. This is being achieved through three separate, but linked programmes. At the core is an in-depth study, over a period of 17 months, in six sites, four rural and two urban (DEEP). The rural sites are in the two largest regions (Amhara and Oromiya), and in each case one site is close to market and state influences, and the other more remote and less integrated. One of the urban sites is a key town for step-migration from one of the selected rural sites to the capital city. The other site is located in a market area in Addis Ababa in which a range of manifestations of poverty and destitution are apparent. The DEEP research began in June 2004 with the administration of a Resources and Needs Survey (RANS) to 250 households randomly selected in three rural sites, and all the households in the fourth which has fewer than 250 households. This was followed by a seventeen-month programme of multi-method and multi-level research which ended in November 2005. Respondents for many of the research modules were purposively selected from the RANS sample. The urban RANS was completed in April 2005 and many of the respondents to other DEEP modules were added to the randomly-selected sample.
Given considerable diversity in terms of ecology, livelihoods, cultures and societies, and in order to locate the selected sites meaningfully within the broader Ethiopian context, the country-wide analysis (ENTIRE) is based on grounding research in 20 rural sites (WIDE2) conducted in the summer of 2003. This has been contextualised and supplemented using secondary sources and qualitative research.The WIDE2 research builds on earlier work in 18 of the 20 sites (WIDE1), for which community and household level data has been gathered in five rounds, starting with 6 food-insecure sites in 1989, and building to 18 sites representing different agro-ecological zones and degrees of market integration by 1999. Since pastoralists, who make up 10% of the population, were not represented in these 18 sites, WIDE2 added 2 such sites. This wider coverage enables the Ethiopia WED programme to situate the sites selected for in-depth study in space and time, covering much of the country’s diversity and recent history.
Analysis of the data has already led to a number of conference papers and presentations, working papers and briefings (see relevant sections). A team consisting of Alula Pankhurst, Philippa Bevan, Yisak Tafere and Julie Newton is currently working on a book 'Power and Life Quality in Ethiopia'.
WIDE1 consists of 20 'village' studies in rural sites. The researchers' fieldwork was guided by a 'semi-structured' protocol. Fifteen of the rural profiles were produced in 1996 to accompany the Ethiopian Rural Panel Household Surveys which were conducted in the sites. The five new rural profiles are in preparation.
WIDE2 was conducted in the 20 rural sites in 2003.
In each of the twenty sites WIDE2 research was conducted by a male researcher (talking to men) and a female researcher (talking to women) in most cases using the same protocol adapted to the gender of the respondent. The research was protocol-guided although researchers (most of whom were social anthropology students or graduates) were trained to be flexible in using the protocols.
The DEEP programme began in June 2004 with the administration of a 'Resources and Needs Survey' (the RANS) in four of the rural WIDE sites – Turufe Kecheme and Korodegaga in Oromia Region and Yetmen and Dinki in Amhara Region. The urban RANS was conducted in April 2005. The survey covers five domains: the household as an organisation, human resources, material resources, social resources and cultural resources. Data entry was completed in November 2004 and the data is available on request from WeD in Bath and will be stored in the ESRC data archive.
The DEEP programme also included a period of intensive fieldwork in each of the six sites lasting seventeen months; it began in July 2004 and was conducted in monthly phases to maximise the benefits of using a flexible approach. The research was protocol-guided with three foci: community, household and person. The community–level research was on elites and destitution, on community institutions, on cultural repertoires relating to old people and young people, on disputes and resolutions, poverty dynamics, migration and collective action. At household level we conducted a monthly Household Diary project in which members of 12 households selected from the RANS were interviewed monthly about their activities in the previous month. The information was used to produce a ‘combined household diary’ as well as individual diaries. In addition to the Individual Monthly Diary Project, we have conducted four other individual level research projects: Adult Life histories with 14 men and 14 women in each site; interviews with 10 old men and 10 old women; and interviews with young people and/or their carers when the young people are too young to respond themselves. Here we have distinguished between infants, small children, learning and working children, children in puberty, and young adults with a total sample in each site of 16 females and 16 males.
In collaboration with colleagues in Peru, Bangladesh and Thailand we have developed a locally-sensitive instrument with universal dimensions for measuring ‘wellbeing’ in the tradition of psychology (the WeD-QoL pilot). The Ethiopia WeD-QoL pilot was developed in an exploratory phase in 2004 and was administered to 31 males and 31 females in each site, most of whom come from households selected from the RANS and/or have participated in other DEEP projects. The WeD-QoL provides information on respondents’ goals, perception of the resources they can use to try to achieve their goals, on community and personal values, and on overall satisfaction with life and positive and negative emotions. The data is available on request from WeD in Bath and will be stored in the ESRC data archive.
This country study makes use of the In/security regime framework developed to guide studies in African contexts as part of the DFID Social Policy in Development Contexts Research project and written up in Gough, I and G Wood, with A Barrientos, P Bevan, P Davis and G Room (2004) Insecurity and Welfare Regimes in Asia, Africa and Latin America, Social Policy in Development Contexts, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. The programme involves the collection and analysis of secondary source data combined with analysis of WIDE and DEEP data. A preliminary paper, Power and Social Policy in Development Contexts: Ethiopia's In/Security Regime, was presented at the American Political Science Association Conference in Philadeplphia in September 2006.
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