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Ethiopia WeD Research Programme

 

 

 

Research Project 1

 

 

WIDE (2) [1]

 

 

Wellbeing and Illbeing Dynamics in Ethiopia

 

A study in 20 rural sites

 

conducted by

 

Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology

University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

and

 

ESRC WeD Research Programme

University of Bath, UK

 

         

SNNP                                      Oromia                        Tigray             Amhara

 

Gamo: Do’oma                         Arssi: Korodegaga       Geblen                        Wollo: Shumsheha

Gurage: Imdibir Haya Gasha   Site in Arssi                 Harresaw        N Shewa: Debre Berhan

Wolayita: Gara Godo                Harerghe: Adele Keke                                    N Shewa: Dinki

Kembata: Aze Debo’a              S Shewa: Sirbana Godeti                     Gojjam: Yetmen

Gedeo: Adado                          S Shewa: Turufe Kecheme                             

Tsamako: Luca                                    E. Shewa (Kereyu): Gelcha

                                                Site near Jima

                                                Site near Bako?

 

 

Research Project 2: In-Depth Exploration of Ethiopian Poverty (DEEP): Mixed-method research over a year or more in 4 of the WIDE sites (those underlined above) 2004-2005.

 

Research Project 3: The Recent History and Dynamics of Poverty, Inequality and Subjective Being in Ethiopia (Ethiopia WeD Country Study).


MODULES                                                    PROTOCOLS

Module 1

 

Introduction to people and society

 

1.1  People

1.2  Life histories

1.3  ‘What matters’ by locally-defined social position

1.4  Exploring social networks

1.5 Social organisation within and beyond the ‘community’

 

Module 2

Social structures and dynamics

2.1  Exploration of social networks

2.2  Exploration of social institutions

2.3  Exploration of local organisations             

2.4  Exploration of social structuration

 

Module 3

Site history

 

3.1  Social reproduction and change

3.2  Economic reproduction and change

3.3  Cultural reproduction and change

3.4  Political reproduction and change

 

 

Module 4

Policy regime interfaces

 

 

 

4.1  Local interventions according to policy providers

4.2. Local interventions according to potential recipients

4.3  Zonal decentralisation and related political restructuring

4.4 Resettlement

4.5  Service co-operatives

4.6  Agricultural Development-Led Industrialisaton (ADLI)

4.7  Land

4.8  Food aid

4.9  Education

4.10  Health

4.11 Drinking water, sanitation

4.12 Interventions aimed specifically at women

4.13 Roads

4.14 Micro-credit

4.15 Security, policing and justice

4.16 Formal and informal taxes including community labour

4.17 War and conscription

4.18 Other government policies /donor/ NGO activities not mentioned

4.19 History of relief and development interventions

Module 5

Crises and local responses

5.1M Exploration of men’s conceptions of and responses to drought and famine

5.1W Exploration of women’s conceptions of and responses to child malnutrition, illness and death

5.2 Exploration of conceptions of and responses to HIV-AIDS

5.3 Exploration of and responses to conflict

 

 

Module 6

Grounding WeD-related Concepts 1

 

 

6.1  ‘Wellbeing’, ‘illbeing’ and  ‘development’

6.2  ‘Harm’ and ‘suffering’

6.3 ‘Needs’,

6.4 ‘Resources’

6.5  Identifying WeD-defined resources which meet WeD-defined needs

6.6  ‘Class’, ‘status’, and ‘power’ and ‘poverty’ and ‘inequality’

Module 7

Changes in wellbeing and inequality

 

7.1  Changes in ways of thinking about ‘quality of life’, ‘wellbeing’ and ‘illbeing’

7.2  Changes in experiences of ‘quality of life’, ‘wellbeing’ and ‘illbeing’

7.3  Changes in criteria of class, status, & power

7.4  Changes in class, status and power

Module 8

Revisiting people and society

 

8.1 Oral wisdom: sayings, stories, jokes

8.2 Photographs

8.3 An emic description of the ways in which local people think about and                 experience wellbeing, illbeing and inequality.

 

 MODULE 1: INTRODUCTION TO PEOPLE AND SOCIETY

 

 

Objective:

 

To achieve an preliminary view of the ways in which local people think about and experience wellbeing, illbeing and inequality

 

 

 

 


Areas of concern

 

1.       Social differences between people

2.       Life experiences of people in different locally-defined social positions

3.       Similarities and differences in ‘what matters’ to people in different locally-defined social positions

4.       The social networks of importance to different kinds of people

5.       Key forms of social organisation within and beyond the community

 

 

 


Methods

People:

Protocol 1M: A group of two or more active and well-informed men

Protocol 1F: A group of two or more active and well-informed women

 

Life histories

Protocol 2M: Men selected from local social categories related to age and poverty – likely to be 10.

Protocol 2F: Women selected from local social categories related to age and poverty – likely to be 10.

 

‘What matters’

Protocol 3M: The same (10?) male respondents

Protocol 3F: The same (10?) female respondents

 

Exploring social networks

Protocol 4M: The same (10?) male respondents

Protocol 4F: The same (10?) female respondents

 

Social organisation

Protocol 5M: Any man or group of men who has lived in the site for a long time and who is active in many parts of the community

Protocol 5M: Any man or group of men who has lived in the site for a long time and who is active in many parts of the community

 

 

 


Outputs

Grounding information to inform 4-site study.

Use of data in Ethiopian country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.


MODULE 2: SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS

 

Objectives:

 

  1. To explore currently important social networks, institutions and organisations and the ways in which different people use them

 

  1. To explore the mechanisms underlying their operation

 

  1. To explore the structuration of the networks and organisations

 

 


Areas of concern

We currently have little understanding of how important local social networks and organisations (described in responses to Module 1) are constructed and ‘work’, nor of their structuration. This module is designed as an initial exploration of relationships.

 

 


Exploration of networks (3 or 4):

Protocol 1M: One of the leaders of the network; an ordinary member; a man who is not a member

Protocol 1F: One of the leaders of the network; an ordinary member; a woman who is not a member

 

Exploration of institutions (3 or 4)

Protocol 2M: A key man in the maintenance of the institution; an ordinary man affected by the institution in a good way; an ordinary man affected in a bad way.

Protocol 2F: A key woman in the maintenance of the institution; an ordinary woman affected by the institution in a good way; an ordinary woman affected in a bad way.

 

Exploration of organisations (3)

Protocol 3M: One of the leaders of the organisation; one of the ordinary members of the organisation; a man who is not a member of the organisation.

Protocol 3F: One of the leaders of the organisation; one of the ordinary members of the organisation; a woman who is not a member of the organisation.

 

Exploration of social structuration

Protocol 4M: Sources – 1995 Village study; previous modules; observation; conversations.

Protocol 4F: Sources – 1995 Village study; previous modules; observation; conversations.

           

 

Outputs

Grounding information to inform 4-site study.

Use of data in Ethiopian country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.

 


MODULE 3: SITE HISTORY

 

Objective:

 

To explore the key elements and outcomes of social (broadly defined) reproduction and change, particularly since 1991

 

 


Areas of concern

 

1.       Social reproduction and change

2.       Economic reproduction and change

3.       Cultural reproduction and change

4.       Political reproduction and change

 

 


Methods

Social reproduction and change

Protocol 1M: A group of two or more active and well-informed men who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

Protocol 1F: A group of two or more active and well-informed women who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

 

Economic reproduction and change:

Protocol 2M: A group of two or more active and well-informed men who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

Protocol 2F: A group of two or more active and well-informed women who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

 

Cultural reproduction and change:

Protocol 3M: A group of two or more active and well-informed men who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

Protocol 3F: A group of two or more active and well-informed women who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

 

Political reproduction and change:

Protocol 4M: A group of two or more active and well-informed men who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

Protocol 4F: A group of two or more active and well-informed women who have lived in the site since 1990 or before.

 

           

Outputs

Policy briefs.

Use of data in Ethiopian country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.

 

 


MODULE 4: POLICY REGIME INTERFACES

 

Objectives:

  1. To explore how government, donor and NGO policies have been implemented (or not) in the site in the last two years

 

  1. To explore how these implementations are participated in, experienced and evaluated by some of those they are aimed at

 

  1. To establish a history of relief and development interventions since 1991

 

 


Areas of concern

1.       Zonal decentralisation and related political restructuring

2.       Resettlement

3.       Service co-operative

4.       ADLI

5.       Land

6.       Food aid

7.       Education

8.       Health including HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

9.       Drinking water, sanitation

10.   Interventions aimed specifically at women

11.   Roads

12.   Micro-credit

13.   Security, policing and justice

14.   Formal and informal taxes including community labour

15.   War and conscription

16.   Other government policies / donor NGO activities not mentioned

17.   History of relief and development interventions

 


Methods (Only relevant Protocols will be applied)

The policy interventions – providers

Protocol 1M: Kebele leaders

The policy interventions – other people in the community:

Protocol 2M: e.g. rich/medium/poor farmers or pastoralists; landless; craftsman; other non-farmers

Protocol 2F: e.g. rich/medium/poor farmers or pastoralists; landless; craftsman; other non-farmers or their wives

Decentralisation:

Protocol 3M: new and old kebele leaders, government employees, ordinary men

Protocol 3F: ditto and/or wives

Resettlement:

Protocol 4M: past settlers who have returned; relatives of those resettled in past; those planning to go under new resettlement scheme; those left behind by relatives who have resettled; returnees from the new resettlement programme; those who have not participated in any resettlement scheme

Protocol 4F: ditto

Service cooperatives

Protocol 5M: members of SC, those working in it; leaders of SC

Protocol 5F ditto and/or wives

Agricultural Development-Led Industrialisation

Protocol 6M: richer farmers, middle farmers, poorer farmers

Protocol 6F: ditto and/or wives

Land

Protocol 7M:  rich farmers, middle farmers, poor farmers, young men, other landless

Protocol 7F: female equivalents

Food Aid

Protocol 8M: poor farmers; other poor men; middle farmers; rich farmers; kebele leaders

Protocol 8F: female equivalents

Education

Protocol 9M: teachers, rich fathers, middle fathers, poor fathers

Protocol 9F: female equivalents

Health Services

Protocol 10M: chronically sick men; men recently suffered/ing from diseases such as malaria, TB, HIV/AIDS etc; elderly men; poor men; wealthy men; formal health service practitioners; traditional and informal health practitioners

Protocol 10F: female equivalents

Drinking Water and Sanitation

Protocol 11M: men who worked on the installations; men whose land rights were affected; men whose wives/children were affected by the installations.

Protocol 11F: female equivalents

Interventions Aimed Specifically at Women

Protocol 12M: older men; young men; rich men; middle men; poor men

Protocol 12F: female equivalents

Roads

Protocol 13M: those working on it; traders; rich men; middle men; poor men

Protocol 13F: female equivalents

Micro-credit

Protocol 14M: rich participants; middle participants; poor participants; those working on the programmes

Protocol 14F: female equivalents

Security, Policing and Justice

Protocol 15M: those affected by violence and other crime; the police; other maintainers of law and order; government ‘judges’; traditional dispute resolvers; those who have committed violence and other crimes

Protocol 15F: female equivalents;

Formal and Informal Taxes

Protocol 16M: rich farmers; middle farmers; poor farmers; tax collectors

Protocol 16F: female equivalents

War and Conscription

Protocol 17M: people caught up in the fighting; people affected by the secondary effects of the fighting; conscripts; their relations

Protocol 17F: female equivalents

Other

Protocol 18M: as appropriate

Protocol 18F: female equivalents

History of All Development and Relief Interventions since 1991

Protocol 19M/F: current kebele leaders; previous kebele officials (since 1991); other likely informants including at least 2 women.

           

Outputs

Papers on policy regime interfaces presented in a Ethiopia WeD panel at the Ethiopian Economics Association Conference planned for June 2004.

One-page policy briefs for government and donors.

Use of data in Ethiopia country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.


MODULE 5: CRISES AND LOCAL RESPONSES - men

 

 

 

Objectives

1.                  To understand differential local views of crisis especially over the last ten year and how these relate to universal views

 

2.                  To explore differential local responses to the crisis

 

3.                  To explore relations between the local and the outside with respect to crises

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Areas of concern

The premise of this module is that we cannot understand poverty issues without gaining a better understanding of crises, factors notably: famine, HIV-AIDS and conflict.

 

___________________________________________________________________

 

Methods

 

Exploration of conceptions of and responses to drought and famine

Protocol 1M: joint interview with at least 1 knowledgeable elder and one younger more literate man.

 

Exploration of women’s conceptions and responses to child malnutrition, illness an death

Protocol 1F: educated woman with children; richer uneducated woman with children; poorer uneducated woman; traditional birth attendant; women health worker at health post

 

Exploration of conceptions of and responses to HIV-AIDS

Protocol 2M: young man, older man

Protocol 2F: young woman, older woman

 

Exploration of conceptions of and responses to conflict

Protocol 3M: 2 men or groups – young and older

Protocol 3F: 2 women or groups – young and older

 

Outputs

Grounding information to inform 4 site study

Use of data in Ethiopian country study

Data for other people to use (all interested in crisis)

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use

 

NB

 

As this module concerns a lot of sad data try to be sympathetic and sensitive in asking the questions, and focus on positive local responses.

 

As this module concerns a lot of sensitive data, please reassure informants that the data will be kept entirely confidential, explaining that we want to understand local processes and that this is research independent from government and agencies.

 


MODULE 6M: GROUNDING WED-RELATED CONCEPTS

 

Objective:

 

To explore relevant local ‘cultural repertoires’: ways of thinking and experiencing related to key WeD-related concerns

 

 


Areas of concern

 

Cultural repertoires relating to subjective wellbeing, illbeing, quality of life and ‘development’

 

Cultural repertoires relation to ‘harm’ and ‘suffering’

 

Cultural repertoires relating to ‘human needs’

 

Cultural repertoires relating to ‘resources’

 

Identification of local WeD-defined resources which meet local WeD-defined human needs

 

Cultural repertoires relating to ‘class’ (including wealth, poverty and destitution), ‘status’, ‘power’, and ‘inequality’

 

 


Methods

‘Wellbeing’, ‘illbeing’ and ‘development’

Protocol 1M: 2 or 3 better-off men; 2 or 3 worse-off men

Protocol 1F: 2 or 3 better-off women; 2 or 3 worse-off women

 

‘Harm’ and ‘suffering’

Protocol 2M: 2 or 3 better-off men; 2 or 3 worse-off men

Protocol 2F: 2 or 3 better-off women; 2 or 3 worse-off women

 

‘Human needs’

Protocol 3M: 2 or 3 better-off men; 2 or 3 worse-off men

Protocol 3F: 2 or 3 better-off women; 2 or 3 worse-off women

 

‘Resources’

Protocol 4M: 2 or 3 better-off men; 2 or 3 worse-off men

Protocol 4F: 2 or 3 better-off women; 2 or 3 worse-off women

 

Identifying WeD-defined resources which meet WeD-defined human needs

Protocol 5M: 2 or 3 better-off men; 2 or 3 worse-off men

Protocol 5F: 2 or 3 better-off women; 2 or 3 worse-off women

 

‘Class’, ‘status’, ‘power’ and ‘inequality’

Protocol 6M: older and younger notables and sufferers – economic, socio-cultural, political (interviewed separately)

Protocol 6F: female equivalents

 


Outputs

Information to inform Module 7

WeD (Ethiopia) paper on the relation between ‘the universal’ and ‘the local’ in Ethiopia.

Grounding information to inform 4-site study.

Use of data in Ethiopian country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.

MODULE 7: CHANGES IN BEING AND INEQUALITY

 

 

Objectives:

 

  1. To explore how local ways of thinking about subjective being and quality of life have changed since the 1960s.

 

  1. To explore how experiences of ‘being’ or ‘quality of life’ have changed since the 1960s.

 

  1. To explore how local criteria for class (wealth, poverty, destitution), status (high and low) and power (high and low) have changed since the 1960s.

 

  1. To explore how experiences of class (wealth, poverty, destitution), status (high and low) and power (high and low) have changed since the 1960s.

 

 


Areas of concern

 

Ways of thinking about and experiences of:

Community quality of life

Household quality of life

Subjective ‘being’

Class

Status

Power

 


Methods

 

Reported Changes in Ways of Thinking about Subjective Being/Quality of Life

Protocol 1M: group of young adult men; group of men young in 1980s; group of men young in 1960s

Protocol 1F: group of young adult women; group of women young in 1980s; group of women young in 1960s

 

Reported Changes in Actual Experiences of Subjective Being/Quality of Life

Protocol 2M: group of young adult men; group of men young in 1980s; group of men young in 1960s

Protocol 2F: group of young adult women; group of women young in 1980s; group of women young in 1960s

 

Changes in Criteria of Class, Status and Power

Protocol 3M: group of young adult men; group of men young in 1980s; group of men young in 1960s

Protocol 3F: group of young adult women; group of women young in 1980s; group of women young in 1960s

 

Changes in Experiences of Class, Status and Power

Protocol 4M: group of young adult men; group of men young in 1980s; group of men young in 1960s

Protocol 4F: group of young adult women; group of women young in 1980s; group of women young in 1960s

 


Outputs

WeD (Ethiopia) papers on local understandings and experiences of subjective being and QoL

Grounding information to inform 4-site study.

Use of data in Ethiopian country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.


MODULE 8: REVISITING PEOPLE AND SOCIETY

 

Objectives:

1. To collect examples of local oral literature in order to deepen understanding of local ways of thinking about poverty, inequality and being and their causes.

2. To take photographs of people in different social positions.

3. To produce a short ‘emic’ description of the ways in which local people think about and experience wellbeing, illbeing, poverty and inequality.

 


Areas of concern

Local beings and understandings

 


Methods

 

Oral Wisdom

Protocol 1M: any age and status – particularly storytellers etc

Protocol 1F: ditto

 

Photographs

Protocol 2M and F: Use of everything learned in the field

Protocol 3F: Use of everything learned in the field

 

 


Outputs

Grounding information to inform 4-site study.

Use of data in Ethiopian country study.

Data for other people to use – in particular the IFPRI/CSAE/AAU economists.

If successful revised protocols for others to adapt for use.

 

 

 



[1] The WIDE(1) research project was undertaken in 15 of the 20 sites marked in bold above. The Ethiopian Village Studies produced by WIDE(1) are available on http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk

 


Copyright © 2003 Ethiopia WeD Research Group
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Last updated: 6 November, 2003